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Bailey, L.H. 1976. Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, NY. 1290 p.

Binggeli, P. 1996. A taxonomic, biogeographical and ecological overview of invasive woody plants. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:121-124.

Daehler, C. C. and D. R. Strong. 1993. Prediction and biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8:380.

Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species. Murray, London

Forcella, F. 1985. Final distribution is related to rate of spread in alien weeds. Weed Research, 25:181-191.

Forcella, F. and S. J. Harvey. 1983. Relative abundance in an alien weed flora. Oecologia 59:292-295.

Forcella, F. and S. J. Harvey. 1988. Patterns of weed migration in Northwestern U.S.A. Weed Science 36:194-201.

Forcella, F. and  J. T. Wood. 1984. Colonization potentials of alien weeds are related to their ‘native’ distributions: Implications for plant quarantine. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 50:35-40.

Goodwin, B. J., A. J. McAllister and L. Fahrig. 1998. Predicting invasiveness of plant species based on biological information. Conservation Biology 13(2):422-426.

Groves, R. H., F. D. Panetta and J.G. Virtue (eds.). 2001. Weed Risk Assessment. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia. 244p.

Hitchcock, C. L. and A. Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 730p.

Higgins, S. I., D. M. Richarson, R. M. Cowling and T.H. Trinder-Smith. 1999. Predicting the landscape-scale distribution of alien plants and their threat to plant diversity. Conservation Biology 13(2):303-313.

Hobbs, R. J. and S. E. Humphries. 1995. An integrated approach to the ecology and management of plant invasions. Conservation Biology 9(4):761-770.

Holm, L.G., D.L. Plucknett, J.V. Pancho and J.P. Herberger. 1991. The World's Worst Weeds: Distribution and Biology. Melbourne, FL: Krieger Publishing Company.

Hultén, E. and M. Fries. 1986. Atlas of North European Vascular Plants. Koeltz Sci. Books, Königstein.

Hunter, Dr. A. 1998. Multi-layer Feedforward Networks.

Kolar, C. S. and D. M. Lodge. 2001. Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16:199-204

Komarov, V. L. 1968. Flora of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic. Smithsonian Institution & National Science Foundation, Jerusalem & Springfield, VA

Mack, R. N. 1996. Predicting the identity and fate of plant invaders: emergent and emerging approaches. Biological Conservation 78:107-121

Marzocca, Angel. 1976. Manual de Malezas. 3rd ed., Editorial Hemisferio Sur, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

Mitchell, T. M. 1997. Machine Learning. McGraw-Hill, Boston

National Research Council. 2002. Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 194p.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). 1998. What are Neural Networks?

Pankhurst, R. 2002. Flora Europaea ( Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh  EH3 5LR, United Kingdom

Parsons, W. T. and E. G. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia.

Randall, R. 2002. A Global Compendium of Weeds. (

Reichard, S. H. and C. W. Hamilton. 1997. Predicting invasions of woody plants introduced into North America. Conservation Biology 11:193-203

Reichard, S. H. 1994. Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington, Seattle.

Rejmánek, M. 1996. A theory of seed plant invasiveness: The first sketch. Biological Conservation 78:171-181

Rejmánek, M. and D. D. Richardson. 1996. What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77(6):1655-1660.

Rejmánek, M. 2000. Invasive plants: approaches and predictions. Austral Ecology 25:497-506.

Rice, P. M. 2002. INVADERS Database System ( Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812-4824.

Scott, J. K. and F. D. Panetta. 1993. Predicting the Australian weed status of Southern Africa plants. Journal of Biogeography 20:87-93

Swarbick, J. T. 1991. Towards a rating scheme for environmental weeds. Plant Protection Quarterly 6:185.

Toney, J. C. and P. M. Rice. 1998. Exotic plant records in the Northwest United States 1950-1996: an ecological assessment. Northwest Science 72(3):198-213.

Vega-Garcia, C., B. S. Lee, P. M. Woodard, and S. J. Titus. Applying neural network technology to human-caused wildfire occurrence prediction. AI Applications 10:9-18

Wells, M. J., A. A. Balsinhas, H. Joffe, V. M. Engelbrecht, G. Harding and C. H. Stirton. 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in Southern Africa. Mem. Bot. Survey S. Afr. 53:1-658.

Westbrooks, R. G. 1991. Plant protection issues. I. A commentary on new weeds in the United States. Weed Technology 5:232-237.

Williamson, M. 1998. Measuring the impact of plant invaders in Britain. In: Plant Invasions: Ecological Mechanisms and Human Responses. U. Starfinger, K. Edwards, I. Kowarik and M. Williamson, eds. Backhuys Publishers, The Netherlands. Pp. 57-68.

Williamson, M. 1999. Mini-Review: Invasions. Ecography 22:1-8.

Williamson, M. H. and A. Fitter. 1996. The characters of successful invaders. Biological Conservation 78:163-170.

Williamson, M. H. and A. Fitter. 1996. The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77(6):1661-1666.

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